Page No 127:

Question 1:

• Do you like travelling? The writer, Vikram Seth, enjoys it very much. In his book, Heaven Lake, he describes a long journey from China to India, via Tibet and Nepal.

• Have you heard of places like Ajmer Sharif, Madurai, Sanchi, Varanasi, Sarnath, or Halebid? Can you name some other places like these?

• What do the surroundings of a holy place in your city look like? Think about it as you read Vikram Seth’s description of Kathmandu.

Answer:

• Yes, I like travelling as it gives an insight into the unknown world.

• Yes, I have heard of the holy places like Ajmer Sharif, Madurai, Sanchi, Varanasi, Sarnath, or Halebid. Some other such places are Amarnath, Vaishno Devi, Haridwar, Ujjain and Shirdi.

• In my city, usually the surroundings of the holy places are cluttered, noisy and overcrowded. Shops selling flowers for offering, idols of different Gods, prasad, etc. line the nearby streets. These places are visited by hundreds of devotees daily.

(A model answer has been provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer based on their own experience and observation.)

Page No 131:

Question 1:

1. On the following map mark out the route, which the author thought of but did not take, to Delhi.

2. Find out the possible routes (by rail, road or air) from Kathmandu to New Delhi/Mumbai/Kolkata/Chennai.

Answer:

1. The route the author had thought of but did not take is given below:

Kathmandu — Bihar (Patna) — Uttar Pradesh (Benares-Allahabad-Agra) — Delhi

(Students are recommended to mark the route on the map on their own.)

2. (Students are recommended to mark the route on the map on their own.)

Page No 132:

Question 1:

Answer these questions in one or two words or in short phrases.

1. Name the two temples the author visited in Kathmandu.

2. The writer says, “All this I wash down with Coca Cola.” What does ‘all this’ refer to?

3.What does Vikram Seth compare to the quills of a porcupine?

4. Name five kinds of flutes.

Answer:

1. Pashupatinath temple and Baudhnath stupa.

2. â€˜All this’ refers to eating a bar of marzipan, a corn-on-the-cob roasted in a charcoal stove (rubbed with salt, chilli powder and lemon), and reading a couple of love story comics and a Reader’s Digest.

3. Vikram Seth compares the fifty or sixty bansuris protruding in all directions from the pole of a flute seller to the quills of a porcupine.

4. The reed neh, the Japanese shakuhachi, the deep bansuri of Hindustani classical music, the clear or breathy flutes of South America, and the high-pitched Chinese flutes.

Question 2:

Answer each question in a short paragraph.

1. What difference does the author note between the flute seller and the other hawkers?

2. What is the belief at Pashupatinath about the end of Kaliyug?

3. The author has drawn powerful images and pictures. Pick out three examples each of

(i) the atmosphere of ‘febrile confusion’ outside the temple of Pashupatinath (for example: some people trying to get the priest’s attention are elbowed aside…)

(ii) the things he sees

(iii) the sounds he hears

Answer:

1. The author notes that while the other hawkers shouted out their wares, the flute seller did not. He simply played a flute, slowly and meditatively, without excessive display.

2. At Pashupatinath, there is a small shrine that protrudes from the stone platform on the river bank of Bagmati. It is believed that when the shrine will emerge fully, the goddess inside it will escape. The evil period of Kaliyug on earth will then end.

3. (i) The author has drawn powerful images and pictures of the atmosphere of ‘febrile confusion’ outside the temple of Pashupatinath. These include the following: a group of saffron-clad Westerners struggling to enter the main gate as only Hindus were allowed to enter the temple; a fight that breaks out between two monkeys; and a royal Nepalese princess for whom everyone makes way.

(ii) The author sees the white dome of Baudhnath Stupa, which was ringed by a road; small shops selling felt bags, Tibetan prints and silver jewellery; and a flute seller holding a pole carrying 50-60 flutes.

(iii) The author hears film songs blaring out from the radios; car horns and bicycle bells; and hawkers’ cries.

Question 3:

Answer the following questions in not more than 100 − 150 words each.

1. Compare and contrast the atmosphere in and around the Baudhnath shrine with the Pashupathinath temple.

2. How does the author describe Kathmandu’s busiest streets?

3. “To hear any flute is to be drawn into the commonality of all mankind.” Why does the author say this?

Answer:

1. The atmosphere at the Pashupatinath temple was noisy, and full of chaos and confusion. Worshippers were trying to get the priest’s attention; others were pushing their way to the front; saffron-clad Westerners were trying to enter the temple; monkeys were fighting and adding to the general noise; a corpse was being cremated on the banks of the river Bagmati; washerwomen were at their work, while children were bathing. In contrast, the Baudhnath stupa was “a haven of quietness in the busy streets around”. There was no crowd, which helped build the stillness and serenity at the Buddhist shrine.

2. Along Kathmandu’s narrowest and busiest streets, there are small shrines and flower-adorned deities. Apart from these, there are fruit sellers, flute sellers, hawkers of postcards, shops selling Western cosmetics, film rolls, chocolate, those selling copper utensils and Nepalese antiques. The author hears film songs that were blaring out from the radios, sounds of car horns and bicycle bells, vendors shouting out their wares. He says that stray cows roam about on the roads. He also draws a vivid picture of a flute seller with many bansuris protruding from his pole. He describes how the serene music produced by the flute seller is heard clearly above all the other noise.

3. The author considers flute music to be “the most universal and most particular” of all music. This is a musical instrument that is common to all cultures. We have the reed neh, the recorder, the Japanese shakuhachi, the deep bansuri of Hindustani classical music, the clear or breathy flutes of South America, the high-pitched Chinese flutes, etc. Even though each of these has its specific fingering and compass yet, for the author, to hear any flute is “to be drawn into the commonality of all mankind”. This is because in spite of their differences, every flute produces music with the help of the human breath. Similarly, despite the differences in caste, culture, religion, region, all human beings are the same, with the same living breath running through all of them.

Question 1:

Read the following sentences carefully to understand the meaning of the italicised phrases. Then match the phrasal verbs in Column A with their meanings in Column B.

1. A communal war broke out when the princess was abducted by the neighbouring prince.

2. The cockpit broke off from the plane during the plane crash.

3. The car broke down on the way and we were left stranded in the jungle.

4. The dacoit broke away from the police as they took him to court.

5. The brothers broke up after the death of the father.

6. The thief broke into our house when we were away.

AB
(i)break out(a)to come apart due to force
(ii)break off(b)end a relationship
(iii)break down(c)break and enter illegally; unlawful trespassing
(iv)break away(from someone)(d)of start suddenly, (usually a fight, a war or a disease)
(v)break up(e)to escape from someone’s grip
(vi)break into(f)stop working

Answer:

AB
(i)break out(d)of start suddenly, (usually a fight, a war or a disease)
(ii)break off(a)to come apart due to force
(iii)break down(f)stop working
(iv)break away(from someone)(e)to escape from someone’s grip
(v)break up(b)end a relationship
(vi)break into(c)break and enter illegally; unlawful trespassing

Page No 133:

Question 2:

1. Use the suffixes −ion or −tion to form nuns from the following verbs. Make the necessary changes in the spellings of the words.

Example: proclaim − proclamation

cremate _____________act ________________exhaust ___________
invent _______________tempt ______________immigrate __________
direct _______________meditate ____________imagine ____________
dislocate _____________associate _____________dedicate ____________

2. Now fill in the blanks with suitable words from the ones that you have formed.

(i) Mass literacy was possible only after the ___________ of the printing machine.

(ii) Ramesh is unable to tackle the situation as he lacks ____________.

(iii) I could not resist the _____________ to open the letter.

(iv) Hardwork and ___________are the main keys to success.

(v) The children were almost fainting with ______________after being made to stand in the sun.

Answer:

1.

cremate cremationact actionexhaust exhaustion
invent inventiontempt temptationimmigrate immigration
direct directionmeditate meditationimagine imagination
dislocate dislocationassociate associationdedicate dedication

2.

(i) Mass literacy was possible only after the invention of the printing machine.

(ii) Ramesh is unable to tackle the situation as he lacks direction.

(iii) I could not resist the temptation to open the letter.

(iv) Hardwork and dedication are the main keys to success.

(v) The children were almost fainting with exhaustion after being made to stand in the sun.

Question 3:

Punctuation

Use capital letter, full stops, question marks, commas and inverted commas wherever necessary in the following paragraph.

an arrogant lion was wandering though the jungle one day he asked the tiger who is stronger than you you O lion replied the tiger who is more fierce than a leopard asked the lion you sir replied the leopard he marched upto an elephant and asked the same question the elephant picked him up in his trunk swung him in the air and threw him down look said the lion there is no need to get mad just because you don’t know the answer

Answer:

An arrogant lion was wandering through the jungle. One day, he asked the tiger, “Who is stronger than you?” “You, O lion!” replied the tiger. “Who is more fierce than a leopard?” asked the lion. “You sir,” replied the leopard. He marched up to an elephant and asked the same question. The elephant picked him up in his trunk, swung him in the air, and threw him down. “Look,” said the lion, “there is no need to get mad just because you don’t know the answer.”

Page No 134:

Question 4:

Simple Present Tense

Study these sentences from the lesson.

• A fight breaks out between two monkeys.

• Film songs blare out from the radios.

• I wash it down with Coca-Cola.

The italicised verbs are in the simple present tense. The writer is here describing what he saw and heard but he uses the present tense instead of the past tense. A narration or a story can be made more dramatic or immediate by using the present tense in this way.

Now look at the following sentences.

• A small shrine half protrudes from the stone platform on the riverbank.

• Small shops stand on the outer edge of the Stupa.

We use the simple present tense to speak about what is usually or generally true. The  sentences above describe facts. We also use the simple present tense in sentences depicting ‘universal truths’.

For example:

• The sun rises in the east.

• The earth revolves round the sun.

We can also refer to habitual actions using the simple present tense.

• He usually takes a train instead of a bus to work.

• We often get fine drizzles in winter.

In these sentences words like everydayoftenseldomneverevery monthgenerallyusually, etc. may be used.

1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

(i) The heart is a pump that ____________(send) the blood circulating through our body. The pumping action ____________(take place) when the left ventricle of the heart ____________(contract). This ____________(force) the blood out into the arteries, which ____________(expand) to receive the oncoming blood.

(ii) The African lungfish can live without water for up to four years. During drought, it ____________(dig) a pit and ____________(enclose) itself in a capsule of slime and earth, leaving a tiny opening for air. The capsule ____________(dry) and ____________(harden), but when rain ____________(come), the mud ____________(dissolve) and the lungfish ____________(swim) away.

(iii) Mahesh: We have to organise a class party for our teacher. ____________(Do) anyone play an instrument?

Vipul:Rohit ____________(play) the flute.

Mahesh: ____________(Do) he also act?

Vipul: No, he ____________(compose) music.

Mahesh: That’s wonderful!

Answer:

(i) The heart is a pump that sends the blood circulating through our body. The pumping action takes place when the left ventricle of the heart contracts. This forces the blood out into the arteries, which expands to receive the oncoming blood.

(ii) The African lungfish can live without water for up to four years. During drought, it digs a pit and encloses itself in a capsule of slime and earth, leaving a tiny opening for air. The capsule dries and hardens, but when rain comes, the mud dissolves and the lungfish swims away.

(iii) Mahesh: We have to organise a class party for our teacher. Does anyone play an instrument?

Vipul: Rohit plays the flute.

Mahesh: Does he also act?

Vipul: No, he composes music.

Mahesh: That’s wonderful!

Page No 135:

Question 1:

Diary entry for a travelogue

The text you read is a travelogue where the author, Vikram Seth, talks about his visit to two sacred places in Kathmandu.

Imagine that you were with Vikram Seth on his visit to Pashupatinath temple, and you were noting down all that you saw and did there, so that you could write a travelogue later.

Record in point form

• what you see when you reach the Pashupatinath temple

• what you see happening inside the temple

• what you do when inside the temple

• what you see outside the temple

• what your impressions are about the place.

Answer:

Today, being the first day of my trip, I have come to visit the Pashupatinath temple with my friend, Vikram Seth. It is a beautiful place.

• On reaching the temple, I notice a completely chaotic scenario. The priests, hawkers, devotees, tourists, cows, monkeys, pigeons and dogs are roaming through the grounds.

• The temple is crowded with huge number of devotees rushing to worship the deity. People are even pushing to enter.

• Inside the temple, we worship and offer a few flowers to the deity.

• Outside the temple, a signboard declared that only Hindus could enter the premises of the temple.

• According to me, the place is chaotic and noisy, like most holy places in India.

(The above answers are only a sample provided for the student’s help. We recommend that students answer such questions using their own creativity and understanding.)

Question 2:

Here is your diary entry when you visited Agra. Read the points and try to write a travelogue describing your visit to Agra and the Taj Mahal. You may add more details.

January 2003 — rise before dawn — take the Shatabdi Express at 6.15 a.m. from Delhi — meet a newly-married couple on train — talk about Himachal Pradesh — get off the train — enter the once-grand city, Agra — twisted alleys — traffic dense — rickshaws, cars, people — vendors selling religious artifacts, plastic toys, spices and sweets — go to the Taj Mahal — constructed entirely of white marble — magical quality — colour changes with varying of light and shadow — marble with gemstones inside — reflection of the Taj Mahal in the pond — school-children, tourists — tourist guides following people.

Answer:

It was the January of the year 2003. I rose before dawn and hurriedly dressed up to reach the New Delhi railway station. I boarded the Shatabdi Express for Agra at 6:15 a.m. The journey was interesting as always. I met a newly-married couple on train. They had married a month ago and were going to Himachal Pradesh to visit a critically ill friend. We discussed the popular tourist attractions in Himachal Pradesh, such as Shimla, Kullu, Manali, Dalhousie, Dharamshala.

Soon I reached Agra. I bid the couple farewell and got off the train to continue further with my journey. I entered the once-grand city. The first few things that attracted me were the twisted alleys, dense traffic with lot of rickshaws, cars, people. These overcrowded streets were lined with many shops. Most of the vendors sold religious artefacts, replicas of the Taj Mahal, plastic toys, spices and sweets.

I left my baggage at a hotel and headed straight to the Taj Mahal. Constructed entirely of white marble with gemstones inside, it had a magical quality that mesmerised everyone. Its colour changed with the change in light and shadow. The reflection of the Taj Mahal in the pond attracted the school children and other tourists, who were being followed by the tourist guides.

Question 1:

1. Discuss in class the shrines you have visited or know about. Speak about one of them.

2. Imagine you are giving an eyewitness account or a running commentary of one of the following:

(i) a game of football, cricket or hockey, or some sports event

(ii) a parade (e.g. Republic Day) or some other national event

Speak a few sentences narrating what you see and hear. Use the simple present and the present continuous tenses. For example:

• He passes the ball but Ben gets in the way…

• These brave soldiers guard our frontiers. They display their skills here…

Answer:

1. Directions:

You may talk about any shrine that you have visited. It could be Ajmer Sharif, Madurai, Sanchi, Varanasi, Sarnath, Halebid, Amarnath, Vaishno Devi, Haridwar, Ujjain, Shirdi, etc.

You may speak about the following points:

• the city where it is located

• reason why it is famous

• surrounding areas/streets/neighbourhood

• any unique feature/ belief associated with the place

• priests or devotees

• anything strange or different thing you may have noticed

(Directions have been provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)

2. (i) Cricket Match:

Team A has won the toss and has come on the field to bat. Ben hits the first ball hard.  The bewildered fielders are trying their best to stop the ball. It’s a four. Team A scores four runs on the first ball of the match. The bowler throws the next ball, which just misses the wicket. The batsman survives. The stadium breathes a sign of relief…

(ii) A Parade:

The brave soldiers of AB Battalion are next to march past the President’s arena. Around 100 of them are taking part in the parade competition. They are displaying their skills and discipline through their well coordinated march. They salute the guests in the President’s arena…

(A model answer has been provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer based on their own creativity and understanding.)