Page No 68:
Can you think of any scientists, who have also been statesmen?
There have been many other scientists who have ventured into the field of politics. Some of them are Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Chu and Claude AllÃ¨gre.
(The list is only indicative. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)
Page No 74:
Find Dhanuskodi and Rameswaram on the map. What language(s) do you think are spoken there? What languages do you think the author, his family, his friends and his teachers spoke with one another?
According to me, Tamil and English are the two languages spoken there. Almost certainly, the author, his family and his friends spoke in Tamil with one another. However, his teachers probably spoke English with the students.
(A model answer has been provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer based on their own understanding.)
Page No 75:
Answer these questions in one or two sentences each.
1. Where was Abdul Kalamâ€™s house?
2. What do you think Dinamani is the name of? Give a reason for your answer.
3. Who were Abdul Kalamâ€™s school friends? What did they later become?
4. How did Abdul Kalam earn his first wages?
5. Had he earned any money before that? In what way?
1. Abdul Kalamâ€™s house was on the Mosque Street in Rameswaram in the former Madras state.
2. Dinamani could be the name of a newspaper because Abdul Kalam used to try to trace the stories of the Second World War, which his brother-in-law told him, in the headlines in Dinamani.
3. Abdul Kalam had three close friends in school â€“ Ramanandha Sastry, Aravindan and Sivaprakasan. Ramanandha Sastry took over the priesthood of the Rameswaram temple from his father; Aravindan started a business of arranging transport for visiting pilgrims; and Sivaprakasan became a catering contractor for the Southern Railways.
4. During the Second World War, the newspapers were bundled and thrown out of a moving train. Abdul Kalam earned his first wages by helping his cousin, who distributed newspapers in Rameswaram, to catch these bundles.
5. Yes, Abdul Kalam had earned some money before he started helping his cousin. He used to collect and sell tamarind seeds at a provision shop, during the Second World War, earning one anna for a dayâ€™s collection.
Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (about 30 words).
1. How does the author describe: (i) his father, (ii) his mother, (iii) himself?
2. What characteristics does he say he inherited from his parents?
1. (i) Kalamâ€™s father, Jainulabdeen was not a wealthy or educated person. However, he was an honest and generous man, who possessed great innate wisdom. He was self-disciplined and avoided all inessential luxuries.
(ii) Kalamâ€™s mother, Ashiamma was an ideal helpmate to her husband. She believed in goodness and profound kindness, and fed many people everyday.
(iii) The author describes himself as a short boy with undistinguished looks, who had a secure childhood. He is an honest and self-disciplined person, who believes in goodness and deep kindness.
2. The author inherited honesty and self-discipline from his father, and faith in goodness and deep kindness from his mother.
Discuss these questions in class with your teacher and then write down your answers in two or three paragraphs each.
1. â€œOn the whole, the small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups,â€ says the author.
(i) Which social groups does he mention? Were these groups easily identifiable (for example, by the way they dressed)?
(ii) Were they aware only of their differences or did they also naturally share friendships and experiences? (Think of the bedtime stories in Kalamâ€™s house; of who his friends were; and of what used to take place in the pond near his house.)
(iii) The author speaks both of people who were very aware of the differences among them and those who tried to bridge these differences. Can you identify such people in the text?
(iv) Narrate two incidents that show how differences can be created, and also how they can be resolved. How can people change their attitudes?
2. (i) Why did Abdul Kalam want to leave Rameswaram?
(ii) What did his father say to this?
(iii) What do you think his words mean? Why do you think he spoke those words?
1. (i) The author mentions the two major religious groups of Indiaâ€”Hindus and Muslimsâ€”as the social groups predominant in Rameswaram.
Yes, these groups were easily identifiable. The factors that demarcated these groups from one another were their dressing sense and the place they lived in. Abdul Kalam wore a cap, which marked him as a Muslim. Besides, he lived on the Mosque Street. On the other hand, his friend, Ramanandha Sastry, wore the sacred thread as he belonged to an orthodox Hindu Brahmin family.
(ii) They naturally shared friendships and experiences. Abdul Kalam was a Muslim while his friends were from orthodox Hindu Brahmin families. However, they were tied with a strong bond of friendship. Besides this friendship, during the annual Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam ceremony, Kalamâ€™s family arranged boats with a special platform for carrying idols of the Lord from the temple to the marriage site. Moreover, events from the Ramayana and from the life of the Prophet were the bedtime stories his mother and grandmother would tell the children of their family. All these incidents show that different social groups co-inhabited in Rameswaram.
(iii) Kalam mentions two people who were very aware of the differences among the two religious groups. One of them was the new teacher of Abdul Kalamâ€™s school, who did not let Abdul Kalam and his friend, Ramanadha Sastry, sit together.
The second person was the wife of Sivasubramania Iyer (Abdul Kalamâ€™s science teacher). She was very conservative and did not want Kalam to eat in her pure Hindu kitchen.
The people who tried to bridge these differences were Lakshmana Sastry (Ramanadhaâ€™s father) and Sivasubramania Iyer (his science teacher).
(iv) When Kalam was in the fifth standard, a new teacher came to his class. The teacher was a bigot and could not tolerate Kalam, who was a Muslim, to sit with Ramanandha Sastry, who was a Hindu priestâ€™s son. Thus, he changed Kalam’s seat. This broke the heart of the two boys. When Ramanandha Sastryâ€™s father came to know about it, he rebuked the teacher for spreading communal intolerance in the minds of innocent children. The teacher apologized and regretted his behaviour.
In another incident, Kalamâ€™s science teacher, Sivasubramania Iyer, invited Kalam for a meal to his house. But his conservative wife refused to serve a Muslim in her pure Hindu kitchen.
The unperturbed teacher, served Kalam himself and even invited him for another meal the next weekend. Iyer believed that once a person has decided to change the system, such problems have to be confronted. However, by Kalam’s next visit, Iyerâ€™s wifeâ€™s views had changed. She took Kalam inside her kitchen and served him food with her own hands.
Hence, attitudes can change if we take initiative to resolve the differences and be the change we want to see.
2. (i) Kalam wanted to leave Rameswaram for further studies. He wanted to study at the district headquarters in Ramanathapuram.
(ii) After giving his consent to Kalam for pursuing his higher studies in Ramanathapuram, Kalamâ€™s father said that he knew Kalam had to go away to â€œgrowâ€ and follow his dreams.
He gave the analogy of a seagull that flies across the sun alone, without a nest. He then quoted Khalil Gibran to Kalamâ€™s mother, saying that their children were not their own. They were the â€œsons and daughters of Lifeâ€™s longing for itselfâ€. They â€œcome throughâ€ their parents, â€œbut not fromâ€ them. Parents may give love to their children, but not their â€œthoughtsâ€, as children have â€œtheir own thoughtsâ€.
(iii) The words he spoke reveal his viewpoint. He believed that at some point of time, children will leave their home and parents, to follow their dreams and to grow as an individual. Just like a seagull flies away alone and finds its own food and nest, children will leave their parents to make their own life and family. Parents can merely nurture their children with love. They cannot give them their thoughts. The children have their own opinions and beliefs.
He spoke these words to comfort Kalamâ€™s mother, who was probably hesitant to let Kalam leave Rameswaram. Besides, he could also be consoling his own self for the same.
Find the sentences in the text where these words occur:
Look these words up in a dictionary which gives examples of how they are used.
Now answer the following questions.
1. What are the things that can erupt? Use examples to explain the various meanings of erupt. Now do the same for the word surge. What things can surge?
2. What are the meanings of the word trace and which of the meanings is closest to the word in the text?
3. Can you find undistinguished in your dictionary? (If not, look for the word distinguished and say what undistinguished mean.)
(It is strongly recommended that students find the first part of the answer on their own.)
1. A few things that can erupt are anger, volcano, tooth, rash, riots, unrest, etc. Erupt has several meanings. Their explanation, with examples, is given as follows:
(i) Start unexpectedly
Example: Riots erupted in the city.
(ii) Start to burn or burst into flames
Example: The spark soon erupted into flames.
(iii) Become active and spew forth lava and rocks
Example: The molten lava erupted out of the active volcano.
(iv) Forceful and violent release of something pent up
Example: The difference in their views soon erupted in a fight.
(v) Sudden appearance on the skin
Example: On the day of the party, a pimple erupted on her face.
(vi) Break out
Example: Eruption of the wisdom tooth gives a lot of pain.
Things that can surge are pride, anxiety, waves, boats, army, etc. The several meanings it has can be explained with the following examples:
(i) Sudden forceful flow
Example: The boy drowned in the surging waves.
(ii) Rise and move forward
The army surged towards their enemy.
(iii) Heave upward under the influence of a natural force
Example: The boat surged in the high tide.
(iv) See one’s performance improve
Example: Hard work helped to surge Sandra’s scores.
(v) A sudden or abrupt strong increase
Example: The surge in the stock market left people in a shock.
(vi) Rise rapidly
Example: As time passed, her tension surged.
2. The following are the meanings of the word trace:
(i) Follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something
(ii) Make a mark or lines on a surface
(iii) To go back over again
(iv) Pursue or chase relentlessly
(v) Find or discover through investigation
(vi) Make one’s course or travel along a path; travel or pass over, around, or along
(vii) Read with difficulty
The closest meaning of the word â€˜traceâ€™ in the text is â€˜to find or discover through investigationâ€™.
3. No, the word undistinguished does not exist in the dictionary. However, its meaning can be derived from the meaning of the word â€˜distinguishedâ€™, which denotes the â€˜special or eminent appearance or behaviour of a personâ€™. Thus, undistinguished symbolises â€˜ordinary appearance or behaviour of a personâ€™.
Page No 76:
1. Match the phrases in Column A with their meanings in Column B.
|(i)||broke out||(a)||an attitude of kindness, a readiness to give freely|
|(ii)||in accordance with||(b)||was not able to tolerate|
|(iii)||a helping hand||(c)||began suddenly in a violent way|
|(iv)||could not stomach||(d)||assistance|
|(v)||generosity of spirit||(e)||persons with power to make decisions|
|(vi)||figures of authority||(f)||according to a particular rule, principle, or system|
2. Study the words in italics in the sentences below. They are formed by prefixing un â€“ or in â€“ to their antonyms (words opposite in meaning).
â€¢ I was a short boy with rather undistinguished looks. (un + distinguished)
â€¢ My austere father used to avoid all inessential comforts.(in + essential)
â€¢ The area was completely unaffected by the war.(un + affected)
â€¢ He should not spread the poison of social inequality and communal intolerance. (in + equality, in + tolerance)
Now form the opposites of the words below by prefixing un– or in-. The prefix in- can also have the forms il-, ir-, or im– (for example: illiterate â€“il + literate, impractical â€“im + practical, irrational â€“ ir + rational). You may consult a dictionary if you wish.
|(i)||broke out||(c)||began suddenly in a violent way|
|(ii)||in accordance with||(f)||according to a particular rule, principle or system|
|(iii)||a helping hand||(d)||assistance|
|(iv)||could not stomach||(b)||was unable to tolerate|
|(v)||generosity of spirit||(a)||an attitude of kindness, a readiness to give freely|
|(vi)||figures of authority||(e)||persons with power to make decision|
Page No 77:
Rewrite the sentences below, changing the verbs in brackets into the passive form.
1. In yesterdayâ€™s competition the prizes (give away) by the Principal.
2. In spite of financial difficulties, the labourers (pay) on time.
3. On Republic Day, vehicles (not allow) beyond this point.
4. Second-hand books (buy and sell) on the pavement every Saturday.
5. Elections to the Lok Sabha (hold) every five years.
6. Our National Anthem (compose) Rabindranath Tagore.
1. In yesterdayâ€™s competition the prizes were given away by the Principal.
2. In spite of financial difficulties, the labourers were paid on time.
3. On Republic Day, vehicles are not allowed beyond this point.
4. Second-hand books are bought and sold on the pavement every Saturday.
5. Elections to the Lok Sabha are held every five years.
6. Our National Anthem was composed by Rabindranath Tagore.
Rewrite the paragraphs below, using the correct form of the verb given in brackets.
1. How Helmets Came To Be Used in Cricket
Nari Contractor was the Captain and an opening batsman for India in the1960s. The Indian cricket team went on a tour to the West Indies in 1962. In a match against Barbados in Bridgetown, Nari Contractor (seriously injure and collapse). In those days helmets (not wear). Contractor (hit) on the head by a bouncer from Charlie Griffith. Contractorâ€™s skull (fracture). The entire team (deeply concern). The West Indies players (worry). Contractor (rush) to hospital. He (accompany) by Frank Worrell, the Captain of the West Indies Team. Blood (donate) by the West Indies players. Thanks to the timely help, Contractor (save). Nowadays helmets (routinely use) against bowlers.
2. Oil from Seeds
Vegetable oils (make) from seeds and fruits of many plants growing all over the world, from tiny sesame seeds to big, juicy coconuts. Oil (produce) from cotton seeds, groundnuts, soya beans and sunflower seeds. Olive oil (use) for cooking, salad dressing etc. Olives (shake) from the trees and (gather) up, usually by hand. The olives (ground) to a thick paste which is spread onto special mats. Then the mats (layer) up on the pressing machine which will gently squeeze them to produce olive oil.
1. How Helmets Came To Be Used in Cricket
Nari Contractor was the Captain and an opening batsman for India in the 1960s. The Indian cricket team went on a tour to the West Indies in 1962. In a match against Barbados in Bridgetown, Nari Contractor got seriously injured and collapsed. In those days helmets were not worn. Contractor was hit on the head by a bouncer from Charlie Griffith. Contractorâ€™s skull had fractured. The entire team was deeply concerned. The West Indies players were worried. Contractor was rushed to hospital. He was accompanied by Frank Worrell, the Captain of the West Indies Team. Blood was donated by the West Indies players. Thanks to the timely help, Contractor was saved. Nowadays helmets are routinely used against bowlers.
2.Oil from Seeds
Vegetable oils are made from seeds and fruits of many plants growing all over the world, from tiny sesame seeds to big, juicy coconuts. Oil is produced from cotton seeds, groundnuts, soya beans and sunflower seeds. Olive oil is used for cooking, salad dressing etc. Olives are shaken from the trees and gathered up, usually by hand. The olives are ground to a thick paste which is spread onto special mats. Then the mats are layered up on the pressing machine which will gently squeeze them to produce olive oil.
Page No 78:
Here is a topic for you to
1. think about;
2. give your opinion on.
Find out what other people think about it. Ask your friends/seniors/parents to give you their opinion.
â€˜Career Building Is the Only Goal of Education.â€™
â€˜Getting a Good Job Is More Important than Being a Good Human Being.â€™
You can use the following phrases
(i) while giving your opinion:
â€¢ I think that…
â€¢ In my opinion…
â€¢ It seems to me thatâ€¦
â€¢ I am of the view that…
â€¢ As far as I know…
â€¢ If you ask me…
(ii) saying what other people think:
â€¢ According to some…
â€¢ Quite a few think…
â€¢ Some others favour…
â€¢ Thirty per cent of the people disagree…
â€¢ Fifty per cent of them strongly feel…
(iii) asking for othersâ€™ opinions:
â€¢ What do you think about…
â€¢ What do you think of…
â€¢ What is your opinion about…
â€¢ Do you agree…
â€¢ Does this make you believe…
(Pointers are being provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)
â€˜Career Building Is the Only Goal of Education.â€™
â€¢ career building is not the only goal of education
â€¢ education has varied functions
â€¢ makes a person civil, disciplined, confident, knowledgeable and self reliant
â€¢ gives a definition to life
â€¢ develops insight to make correct decisions
â€¢ career is also build in the process
â€˜Getting a Good Job Is More Important than Being a Good Human Being.â€™
â€¢ being good human being is more important
â€¢ virtue â€“ first step to success
â€¢ moral excellence â€“ essential for job
â€¢ honesty, sympathy, goodwill, helpfulness, generosity, etc. make up the personality
â€¢ good personality is very important for getting good job
(The rest of the question is to be answered based on the students’ findings and understanding. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)
Page No 79:
Think and write a short account of what life in Rameswaram in the 1940s must have been like. (Were people rich or poor? Hard working or lazy? Hopeful of change, or resistant to it?)
In the year 1940s, the life in Rameswaram might have been very simple. From the account of Abdul Kalam, we gather that the people were not very wealthy. Though religious based segregation existed, people lived in harmony with one another. Yet there were people who did not like different social groups to intermingle. The religions were demarcated by the clothes they wore or the area where they lived. Orthodox Hindu Brahmin families were more rigid. Still, those who displayed their conservativeness and religious stringency were strongly opposed by the others.
The people of the town might have been hard working, as the author mentions how his cousin used to collect bundles of newspaper for distribution. Kalamâ€™s family arranged for boats for the visiting pilgrims. Also, the author himself started earning at the tender age of eight years.
Besides, the Second World War might have affected the lives of the people. The author says that India was forced to join the war and subsequently a state of emergency was declared. Indians waited optimistically for independence.
(A model answer has been provided for students’ reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own understanding.)