## Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles

#### Page No 155:

#### Question 1:

Which of the following figures lie on the same base and between the same parallels.

In such a case, write the common base and the two parallels.

(i) | (ii) | (iii) |

(iv) | (v) | (vi) |

#### Answer:

(i)

Yes. It can be observed that trapezium ABCD and triangle PCD have a common base CD and these are lying between the same parallel lines AB and CD.

(ii)

No. It can be observed that parallelogram PQRS and trapezium MNRS have a common base RS. However, their vertices, (i.e., opposite to the common base) P, Q of parallelogram and M, N of trapezium, are not lying on the same line.

(iii)

Yes. It can be observed that parallelogram PQRS and triangle TQR have a common base QR and they are lying between the same parallel lines PS and QR.

(iv)

No. It can be observed that parallelogram ABCD and triangle PQR are lying between same parallel lines AD and BC. However, these do not have any common base.

(v)

Yes. It can be observed that parallelogram ABCD and parallelogram APQD have a common base AD and these are lying between the same parallel lines AD and BQ.

(vi)

No. It can be observed that parallelogram PBCS and PQRS are lying on the same base PS. However, these do not lie between the same parallel lines.

#### Page No 159:

#### Question 1:

In the given figure, ABCD is parallelogram, AE ? DC and CF ? AD. If AB = 16 cm, AE = 8 cm and CF = 10 cm, find AD.

#### Answer:

In parallelogram ABCD, CD = AB = 16 cm

[Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal]

We know that

Area of a parallelogram = Base × Corresponding altitude

Area of parallelogram ABCD = CD × AE = AD × CF

16 cm × 8 cm = AD × 10 cm

Thus, the length of AD is 12.8 cm.

Video Solution

#### Question 2:

If E, F, G and H are respectively the mid-points of the sides of a parallelogram ABCD show that

ar (EFGH) ar (ABCD)

#### Answer:

Let us join HF.

In parallelogram ABCD,

AD = BC and AD || BC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal and parallel)

AB = CD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal)

and AH || BF

? AH = BF and AH || BF ( H and F are the mid-points of AD and BC)

Therefore, ABFH is a parallelogram.

Since ?HEF and parallelogram ABFH are on the same base HF and between the same parallel lines AB and HF,

? Area (?HEF) = Area (ABFH) … (1)

Similarly, it can be proved that

Area (?HGF) = Area (HDCF) … (2)

On adding equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Video Solution

#### Question 3:

P and Q are any two points lying on the sides DC and AD respectively of a parallelogram ABCD. Show that ar (APB) = ar (BQC).

#### Answer:

It can be observed that ?BQC and parallelogram ABCD lie on the same base BC and these are between the same parallel lines AD and BC.

?Area (?BQC) = Area (ABCD) … (1)

Similarly, ?APB and parallelogram ABCD lie on the same base AB and between the same parallel lines AB and DC.

? Area (?APB) = Area (ABCD) … (2)

From equation (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?BQC) = Area (?APB)

Video Solution

#### Question 4:

In the given figure, P is a point in the interior of a parallelogram ABCD. Show that

(i) ar (APB) + ar (PCD) = ar (ABCD)

(ii) ar (APD) + ar (PBC) = ar (APB) + ar (PCD)

[Hint: Through. P, draw a line parallel to AB]

#### Answer:

(i) Let us draw a line segment EF, passing through point P and parallel to line segment AB.

In parallelogram ABCD,

AB || EF (By construction) … (1)

ABCD is a parallelogram.

? AD || BC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

? AE || BF … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

AB || EF and AE || BF

Therefore, quadrilateral ABFE is a parallelogram.

It can be observed that ?APB and parallelogram ABFE are lying on the same base AB and between the same parallel lines AB and EF.

? Area (?APB) = Area (ABFE) … (3)

Similarly, for ?PCD and parallelogram EFCD,

Area (?PCD) = Area (EFCD) … (4)

Adding equations (3) and (4), we obtain

(ii)

Let us draw a line segment MN, passing through point P and parallel to line segment AD.

In parallelogram ABCD,

MN || AD (By construction) … (6)

ABCD is a parallelogram.

? AB || DC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

? AM || DN … (7)

From equations (6) and (7), we obtain

MN || AD and AM || DN

Therefore, quadrilateral AMND is a parallelogram.

It can be observed that ?APD and parallelogram AMND are lying on the same base AD and between the same parallel lines AD and MN.

? Area (?APD) = Area (AMND) … (8)

Similarly, for ?PCB and parallelogram MNCB,

Area (?PCB) = Area (MNCB) … (9)

Adding equations (8) and (9), we obtain

On comparing equations (5) and (10), we obtain

Area (?APD) + Area (?PBC) = Area (?APB) + Area (?PCD)

Video Solution

#### Question 5:

In the given figure, PQRS and ABRS are parallelograms and X is any point on side BR. Show that

(i) ar (PQRS) = ar (ABRS)

(ii) ar (AXS) = ar (PQRS)

#### Answer:

(i) It can be observed that parallelogram PQRS and ABRS lie on the same base SR

and also, these lie in between the same parallel lines SR and PB.

? Area (PQRS) = Area (ABRS) … (1)

(ii) Consider ?AXS and parallelogram ABRS.

As these lie on the same base and are between the same parallel lines AS and BR,

? Area (?AXS) = Area (ABRS) … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?AXS) = Area (PQRS)

Video Solution

#### Page No 160:

#### Question 6:

A farmer was having a field in the form of a parallelogram PQRS. She took any point A on RS and joined it to points P and Q. In how many parts the field is divided? What are the shapes of these parts? The farmer wants to sow wheat and pulses in equal portions of the field separately. How should she do it?

#### Answer:

From the figure, it can be observed that point A divides the field into three parts. These parts are triangular in shape – ?PSA, ?PAQ, and ?QRA

Area of ?PSA + Area of ?PAQ + Area of ?QRA = Area of PQRS … (1)

We know that if a parallelogram and a triangle are on the same base and between the same parallels, then the area of the triangle is half the area of the parallelogram.

? Area (?PAQ) = Area (PQRS) … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?PSA) + Area (?QRA) = Area (PQRS) … (3)

Clearly, it can be observed that the farmer must sow wheat in triangular part PAQ and pulses in other two triangular parts PSA and QRA or wheat in triangular parts PSA and QRA and pulses in triangular parts PAQ.

Video Solution

#### Page No 162:

#### Question 1:

In the given figure, E is any point on median AD of a ?ABC. Show that

ar (ABE) = ar (ACE)

#### Answer:

AD is the median of ?ABC. Therefore, it will divide ?ABC into two triangles of equal areas.

? Area (?ABD) = Area (?ACD) … (1)

ED is the median of ?EBC.

? Area (?EBD) = Area (?ECD) … (2)

On subtracting equation (2) from equation (1), we obtain

Area (?ABD) – Area (EBD) = Area (?ACD) – Area (?ECD)

Area (?ABE) = Area (?ACE)

Video Solution

#### Question 2:

In a triangle ABC, E is the mid-point of median AD. Show that ar (BED) = ar (ABC)

#### Answer:

AD is the median of ?ABC. Therefore, it will divide ?ABC into two triangles of equal areas.

? Area (?ABD) = Area (?ACD)

? … (1)

In ?ABD, E is the mid-point of AD. Therefore, BE is the median.

? Area (?BED) = Area (?ABE)

? Area (?BED) = Area (?ABD)

? Area (?BED) = Area (?ABC) [From equation (1)]

? Area (?BED) = Area (?ABC)

Video Solution

#### Question 3:

Show that the diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into four triangles of equal area.

#### Answer:

We know that diagonals of parallelogram bisect each other.

Therefore, O is the mid-point of AC and BD.

BO is the median in ?ABC. Therefore, it will divide it into two triangles of equal areas.

? Area (?AOB) = Area (?BOC) … (1)

In ?BCD, CO is the median.

? Area (?BOC) = Area (?COD) … (2)

Similarly, Area (?COD) = Area (?AOD) … (3)

From equations (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Area (?AOB) = Area (?BOC) = Area (?COD) = Area (?AOD)

Therefore, it is evident that the diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into four triangles of equal area.

Video Solution

#### Question 4:

In the given figure, ABC and ABD are two triangles on the same base AB. If line-segment CD is bisected by AB at O, show that ar (ABC) = ar (ABD).

#### Answer:

Consider ?ACD.

Line-segment CD is bisected by AB at O. Therefore, AO is the median of

?ACD.

? Area (?ACO) = Area (?ADO) … (1)

Considering ?BCD, BO is the median.

? Area (?BCO) = Area (?BDO) … (2)

Adding equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?ACO) + Area (?BCO) = Area (?ADO) + Area (?BDO)

? Area (?ABC) = Area (?ABD)

Video Solution

#### Page No 163:

#### Question 5:

D, E and F are respectively the mid-points of the sides BC, CA and AB of a ?ABC. Show that

(i) BDEF is a parallelogram.

(ii) ar (DEF) = ar (ABC)

(iii) ar (BDEF) = ar (ABC)

#### Answer:

(i) In Î”ABC,

E and F are the mid-points of side AC and AB respectively.

Therefore, EF || BC and EF = BC (Mid-point theorem)

However, BD = BC (D is the mid-point of BC)

Therefore, BD = EF and BD || EF

Therefore, BDEF is a parallelogram.

(ii) Using the result obtained above, it can be said that quadrilaterals BDEF, DCEF, AFDE are parallelograms.

We know that diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area.

âˆ´Area (Î”BFD) = Area (Î”DEF) (For parallelogram BD)

Area (Î”CDE) = Area (Î”DEF) (For parallelogram DCEF)

Area (Î”AFE) = Area (Î”DEF) (For parallelogram AFDE)

âˆ´Area (Î”AFE) = Area (Î”BFD) = Area (Î”CDE) = Area (Î”DEF)

Also,

Area (Î”AFE) + Area (Î”BDF) + Area (Î”CDE) + Area (Î”DEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

â‡’ Area (Î”DEF) + Area (Î”DEF) + Area (Î”DEF) + Area (Î”DEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

â‡’ 4 Area (Î”DEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

â‡’ Area (Î”DEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

(iii) Area (parallelogram BDEF) = Area (Î”DEF) + Area (Î”BDF)

â‡’ Area (parallelogram BDEF) = Area (Î”DEF) + Area (Î”DEF)

â‡’ Area (parallelogram BDEF) = 2 Area (Î”DEF)

â‡’ Area (parallelogram BDEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

â‡’ Area (parallelogram BDEF) = Area (Î”ABC)

#### Question 6:

In the given figure, diagonals AC and BD of quadrilateral ABCD intersect at O such that OB = OD. If AB = CD, then show that:

(i) ar (DOC) = ar (AOB)

(ii) ar (DCB) = ar (ACB)

(iii) DA || CB or ABCD is a parallelogram.

[Hint: From D and B, draw perpendiculars to AC.]

#### Answer:

Let us draw DN âŠ¥ AC and BM âŠ¥ AC.

(i) In Î”DON and Î”BOM,

âˆ DNO = âˆ BMO (By construction)

âˆ DON = âˆ BOM (Vertically opposite angles)

OD = OB (Given)

By AAS congruence rule,

Î”DON â‰… Î”BOM

âˆ´ DN = BM … (1)

We know that congruent triangles have equal areas.

âˆ´ Area (Î”DON) = Area (Î”BOM) … (2)

In Î”DNC and Î”BMA,

âˆ DNC = âˆ BMA (By construction)

CD = AB (Given)

DN = BM [Using equation (1)]

âˆ´ Î”DNC â‰… Î”BMA (RHS congruence rule)

â‡’ Area (Î”DNC) = Area (Î”BMA) … (3)

On adding equations (2) and (3), we obtain

Area (Î”DON) + Area (Î”DNC) = Area (Î”BOM) + Area (Î”BMA)

Therefore, Area (Î”DOC) = Area (Î”AOB)

(ii) We obtained,

Area (Î”DOC) = Area (Î”AOB)

â‡’ Area (Î”DOC) + Area (Î”OCB) = Area (Î”AOB) + Area (Î”OCB)

(Adding Area (Î”OCB) to both sides)

â‡’ Area (Î”DCB) = Area (Î”ACB)

(iii) We obtained,

Area (Î”DCB) = Area (Î”ACB)

If two triangles have the same base and equal areas, then these will lie between the same parallels.

âˆ´ DA || CB … (4)

In Î”DOA and Î”BOC,

âˆ DOA = âˆ BOC (Vertically opposite angles)

OD = OB (Given)

âˆ ODA = âˆ OBC (Alternate opposite angles)

By ASA congruence rule,

Î”DOA â‰… Î”BOC

âˆ´ DA = BC … (5)

In quadrilateral ABCD, one pair of opposite sides is equal and parallel (AD = BC)

Therefore, ABCD is a parallelogram.

#### Question 7:

D and E are points on sides AB and AC respectively of ?ABC such that

ar (DBC) = ar (EBC). Prove that DE || BC.

#### Answer:

Since ?BCE and ?BCD are lying on a common base BC and also have equal areas, ?BCE and ?BCD will lie between the same parallel lines.

? DE || BC

Video Solution

#### Question 8:

XY is a line parallel to side BC of a triangle ABC. If BE || AC and CF || AB meet XY at E and E respectively, show that

ar (ABE) = ar (ACF)

#### Answer:

It is given that

XY || BC ? EY || BC

BE || AC ? BE || CY

Therefore, EBCY is a parallelogram.

It is given that

XY || BC ? XF || BC

FC || AB ? FC || XB

Therefore, BCFX is a parallelogram.

Parallelograms EBCY and BCFX are on the same base BC and between the same parallels BC and EF.

? Area (EBCY) = Area (BCFX) … (1)

Consider parallelogram EBCY and ?AEB

These lie on the same base BE and are between the same parallels BE and AC.

? Area (?ABE) = Area (EBCY) … (2)

Also, parallelogram BCFX and ?ACF are on the same base CF and between the same parallels CF and AB.

? Area (?ACF) = Area (BCFX) … (3)

From equations (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Area (?ABE) = Area (?ACF)

#### Question 9:

The side AB of a parallelogram ABCD is produced to any point P. A line through A and parallel to CP meets CB produced at Q and then parallelogram PBQR is completed (see the following figure). Show that

ar (ABCD) = ar (PBQR).

[Hint: Join AC and PQ. Now compare area (ACQ) and area (APQ)]

#### Answer:

Let us join AC and PQ.

?ACQ and ?AQP are on the same base AQ and between the same parallels AQ and CP.

? Area (?ACQ) = Area (?APQ)

? Area (?ACQ) – Area (?ABQ) = Area (?APQ) – Area (?ABQ)

? Area (?ABC) = Area (?QBP) … (1)

Since AC and PQ are diagonals of parallelograms ABCD and PBQR respectively,

? Area (?ABC) = Area (ABCD) … (2)

Area (?QBP) = Area (PBQR) … (3)

From equations (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Area (ABCD) = Area (PBQR)

Area (ABCD) = Area (PBQR)

#### Question 10:

Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB || DC intersect each other at O. Prove that ar (AOD) = ar (BOC).

#### Answer:

It can be observed that ?DAC and ?DBC lie on the same base DC and between the same parallels AB and CD.

? Area (?DAC) = Area (?DBC)

? Area (?DAC) – Area (?DOC) = Area (?DBC) – Area (?DOC)

? Area (?AOD) = Area (?BOC)

Video Solution

#### Question 11:

In the given figure, ABCDE is a pentagon. A line through B parallel to AC meets DC produced at F. Show that

(i) ar (ACB) = ar (ACF)

(ii) ar (AEDF) = ar (ABCDE)

#### Answer:

(i) ?ACB and ?ACF lie on the same base AC and are between

The same parallels AC and BF.

? Area (?ACB) = Area (?ACF)

(ii) It can be observed that

Area (?ACB) = Area (?ACF)

? Area (?ACB) + Area (ACDE) = Area (ACF) + Area (ACDE)

? Area (ABCDE) = Area (AEDF)

#### Page No 164:

#### Question 12:

A villager Itwaari has a plot of land of the shape of a quadrilateral. The Gram Panchayat of the village decided to take over some portion of his plot from one of the corners to construct a Health Centre. Itwaari agrees to the above proposal with the condition that he should be given equal amount of land in lieu of his land adjoining his plot so as to form a triangular plot. Explain how this proposal will be implemented.

#### Answer:

Let quadrilateral ABCD be the original shape of the field.

The proposal may be implemented as follows.

Join diagonal BD and draw a line parallel to BD through point A. Let it meet

the extended side CD of ABCD at point E. Join BE and AD. Let them intersect each other at O. Then, portion ?AOB can be cut from the original field so that the new shape of the field will be ?BCE. (See figure)

We have to prove that the area of ?AOB (portion that was cut so as to construct Health Centre) is equal to the area of ?DEO (portion added to the field so as to make the area of the new field so formed equal to the area of the original field)

It can be observed that ?DEB and ?DAB lie on the same base BD and are between the same parallels BD and AE.

? Area (?DEB) = Area (?DAB)

? Area (?DEB) – Area (?DOB) = Area (?DAB) – Area (?DOB)

? Area (?DEO) = Area (?AOB)

#### Question 13:

ABCD is a trapezium with AB || DC. A line parallel to AC intersects AB at X and BC at Y. Prove that ar (ADX) = ar (ACY).

[Hint: Join CX.]

#### Answer:

It can be observed that ?ADX and ?ACX lie on the same base AX and are between the same parallels AB and DC.

? Area (?ADX) = Area (?ACX) … (1)

?ACY and ?ACX lie on the same base AC and are between the same parallels AC and XY.

? Area (?ACY) = Area (ACX) … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?ADX) = Area (?ACY)

#### Question 14:

In the given figure, AP || BQ || CR. Prove that ar (AQC) = ar (PBR).

#### Answer:

Since ?ABQ and ?PBQ lie on the same base BQ and are between the same parallels AP and BQ,

? Area (?ABQ) = Area (?PBQ) … (1)

Again, ?BCQ and ?BRQ lie on the same base BQ and are between the same parallels BQ and CR.

? Area (?BCQ) = Area (?BRQ) … (2)

On adding equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?ABQ) + Area (?BCQ) = Area (?PBQ) + Area (?BRQ)

? Area (?AQC) = Area (?PBR)

Video Solution

#### Question 15:

Diagonals AC and BD of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect at O in such a way that ar (AOD) = ar (BOC). Prove that ABCD is a trapezium.

#### Answer:

It is given that

Area (?AOD) = Area (?BOC)

Area (?AOD) + Area (?AOB) = Area (?BOC) + Area (?AOB)

Area (?ADB) = Area (?ACB)

We know that triangles on the same base having areas equal to each other lie between the same parallels.

Therefore, these triangles, ?ADB and ?ACB, are lying between the same parallels.

i.e., AB || CD

Therefore, ABCD is a trapezium.

#### Question 16:

In the given figure, ar (DRC) = ar (DPC) and ar (BDP) = ar (ARC). Show that both the quadrilaterals ABCD and DCPR are trapeziums.

#### Answer:

It is given that

Area (?DRC) = Area (?DPC)

As ?DRC and ?DPC lie on the same base DC and have equal areas, therefore, they must lie between the same parallel lines.

? DC || RP

Therefore, DCPR is a trapezium.

It is also given that

Area (?BDP) = Area (?ARC)

? Area (BDP) – Area (?DPC) = Area (?ARC) – Area (?DRC)

? Area (?BDC) = Area (?ADC)

Since ?BDC and ?ADC are on the same base CD and have equal areas, they must lie between the same parallel lines.

? AB || CD

Therefore, ABCD is a trapezium.

#### Question 1:

Parallelogram ABCD and rectangle ABEF are on the same base AB and have equal areas. Show that the perimeter of the parallelogram is greater than that of the rectangle.

#### Answer:

As the parallelogram and the rectangle have the same base and equal area, therefore, these will also lie between the same parallels.

Consider the parallelogram ABCD and rectangle ABEF as follows.

Here, it can be observed that parallelogram ABCD and rectangle ABEF are between the same parallels AB and CF.

We know that opposite sides of a parallelogram or a rectangle are of equal lengths. Therefore,

AB = EF (For rectangle)

AB = CD (For parallelogram)

? CD = EF

? AB + CD = AB + EF … (1)

Of all the line segments that can be drawn to a given line from a point not lying on it, the perpendicular line segment is the shortest.

? AF < AD

And similarly, BE < BC

? AF + BE < AD + BC … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

AB + EF + AF + BE < AD + BC + AB + CD

Perimeter of rectangle ABEF < Perimeter of parallelogram ABCD

#### Question 2:

In the following figure, D and E are two points on BC such that BD = DE = EC. Show that ar (ABD) = ar (ADE) = ar (AEC).

Can you answer the question that you have left in the ’Introduction’ of this chapter, whether the field of *Budhia* has been actually divided into three parts of equal area?

[**Remark:** Note that by taking BD = DE = EC, the triangle ABC is divided into three triangles ABD, ADE and AEC of equal areas. In the same way, by dividing BC into *n* equal parts and joining the points of division so obtained to the opposite vertex of BC, you can divide ?ABC into *n* triangles of equal areas.]

#### Answer:

Let us draw a line segment AM ? BC.

We know that,

Area of a triangle × Base × Altitude

It is given that DE = BD = EC

?

? Area (?ADE) = Area (?ABD) = Area (?AEC)

It can be observed that *Budhia* has divided her field into 3 equal parts.

#### Page No 165:

#### Question 3:

In the following figure, ABCD, DCFE and ABFE are parallelograms. Show that ar (ADE) = ar (BCF).

#### Answer:

It is given that ABCD is a parallelogram. We know that opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal.

? AD = BC … (1)

Similarly, for parallelograms DCEF and ABFE, it can be proved that

DE = CF … (2)

And, EA = FB … (3)

In ?ADE and ?BCF,

AD = BC [Using equation (1)]

DE = CF [Using equation (2)]

EA = FB [Using equation (3)]

? ?ADE ? BCF (SSS congruence rule)

? Area (?ADE) = Area (?BCF)

#### Question 4:

In the following figure, ABCD is parallelogram and BC is produced to a point Q such that AD = CQ. If AQ intersect DC at P, show that

ar (BPC) = ar (DPQ).

[Hint: Join AC.]

#### Answer:

It is given that ABCD is a parallelogram.

AD || BC and AB || DC(Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel to each other)

Join point A to point C.

Consider ?APC and ?BPC

?APC and ?BPC are lying on the same base PC and between the same parallels PC and AB. Therefore,

Area (?APC) = Area (?BPC) … (1)

In quadrilateral ACDQ, it is given that

AD = CQ

Since ABCD is a parallelogram,

AD || BC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel)

CQ is a line segment which is obtained when line segment BC is produced.

? AD || CQ

We have,

AC = DQ and AC || DQ

Hence, ACQD is a parallelogram.

Consider ?DCQ and ?ACQ

These are on the same base CQ and between the same parallels CQ and AD. Therefore,

Area (?DCQ) = Area (?ACQ)

? Area (?DCQ) – Area (?PQC) = Area (?ACQ) – Area (?PQC)

? Area (?DPQ) = Area (?APC) … (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Area (?BPC) = Area (?DPQ)

#### Question 5:

In the following figure, ABC and BDE are two equilateral triangles such that D is the mid-point of BC. If AE intersects BC at F, show that

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

[Hint: Join EC and AD. Show that BE || AC and DE || AB, etc.]

#### Answer:

(i) Let G and H be the mid-points of side AB and AC respectively.

Line segment GH is joining the mid-points. Therefore, it will be parallel to third side BC and also its length will be half of the length of BC (mid-point theorem).

? GH = BC and GH || BD

? GH = BD = DC and GH || BD (D is the mid-point of BC)

Consider quadrilateral GHDB.

GH ||BD and GH = BD

Two line segments joining two parallel line segments of equal length will also be equal and parallel to each other.

Therefore, BG = DH and BG || DH

Hence, quadrilateral GHDB is a parallelogram.

We know that in a parallelogram, the diagonal bisects it into two triangles of equal area.

Hence, Area (?BDG) = Area (?HGD)

Similarly, it can be proved that quadrilaterals DCHG, GDHA, and BEDG are parallelograms and their respective diagonals are dividing them into two triangles of equal area.

ar (?GDH) = ar (?CHD) (For parallelogram DCHG)

ar (?GDH) = ar (?HAG) (For parallelogram GDHA)

ar (?BDE) = ar (?DBG) (For parallelogram BEDG)

ar (?ABC) = ar(?BDG) + ar(?GDH) + ar(?DCH) + ar(?AGH)

ar (?ABC) = 4 × ar(?BDE)

Hence,

(ii)Area (?BDE) = Area (?AED) (Common base DE and DE||AB)

Area (?BDE) – Area (?FED) = Area (?AED) – Area (?FED)

Area (?BEF) = Area (?AFD) (1)

Area (?ABD) = Area (?ABF) + Area (?AFD)

Area (?ABD) = Area (?ABF) + Area (?BEF) [From equation (1)]

Area (?ABD) = Area (?ABE) (2)

AD is the median in ?ABC.

From (2) and (3), we obtain

2 ar (?BDE) = ar (?ABE)

Or,

(iii)

ar (?ABE) = ar (?BEC) (Common base BE and BE||AC)

ar (?ABF) + ar (?BEF) = ar (?BEC)

Using equation (1), we obtain

ar (?ABF) + ar (?AFD) = ar (?BEC)

ar (?ABD) = ar (?BEC)

ar (?ABC) = 2 ar (?BEC)

(iv)It is seen that ?BDE and ar ?AED lie on the same base (DE) and between the parallels DE and AB.

?ar (?BDE) = ar (?AED)

? ar (?BDE) – ar (?FED) = ar (?AED) – ar (?FED)

?ar (?BFE) = ar (?AFD)

(v)Let *h* be the height of vertex E, corresponding to the side BD in ?BDE.

Let *H* be the height of vertex A, corresponding to the side BC in ?ABC.

In (i), it was shown that

In (iv), it was shown that ar (?BFE) = ar (?AFD).

? ar (?BFE) = ar (?AFD)

=

= 2 ar (?FED)

Hence,

(vi) Area (AFC) = area (AFD) + area (ADC)

Now, by (v), … (6)

Therefore, from equations (5), (6), and (7), we get:

#### Page No 166:

#### Question 6:

Diagonals AC and BD of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect each other at P. Show that

[Hint: From A and C, draw perpendiculars to BD]

#### Answer:

Let us draw AM ? BD and CN ? BD

Area of a triangle

? ar (APB) × ar (CPD) = ar (APD) × ar (BPC)

#### Question 7:

P and Q are respectively the mid-points of sides AB and BC of a triangle ABC and R is the mid-point of AP, show that

(i) (ii)

(iii)

#### Answer:

Take a point S on AC such that S is the mid-point of AC.

Extend PQ to T such that PQ = QT.

Join TC, QS, PS, and AQ.

In ?ABC, P and Q are the mid-points of AB and BC respectively. Hence, by using mid-point theorem, we obtain

PQ || AC and PQ

? PQ || AS and PQ = AS (As S is the mid-point of AC)

? PQSA is a parallelogram. We know that diagonals of a parallelogram bisect it into equal areas of triangles.

? ar (?PAS) = ar (?SQP) = ar (?PAQ) = ar (?SQA)

Similarly, it can also be proved that quadrilaterals PSCQ, QSCT, and PSQB are also parallelograms and therefore,

ar (?PSQ) = ar (?CQS) (For parallelogram PSCQ)

ar (?QSC) = ar (?CTQ) (For parallelogram QSCT)

ar (?PSQ) = ar (?QBP) (For parallelogram PSQB)

Thus,

ar (?PAS) = ar (?SQP) = ar (?PAQ) = ar (?SQA) = ar (?QSC) = ar (?CTQ) = ar (?QBP) … (1)

Also, ar (?ABC) = ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PAS) + ar (?PQS) + ar (?QSC)

ar (?ABC) = ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ)

= ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ) + ar (?PBQ)

= 4 ar (?PBQ)

? ar (?PBQ) = ar (?ABC) … (2)

(i)Join point P to C.

In ?PAQ, QR is the median.

… (3)

In ?ABC, P and Q are the mid-points of AB and BC respectively. Hence, by using mid-point theorem, we obtain

PQ

Also, PQ || AC PT || AC

Hence, PACT is a parallelogram.

ar (PACT) = ar (PACQ) + ar (?QTC)

= ar (PACQ) + ar (?PBQ [Using equation (1)]

? ar (PACT) = ar (?ABC) … (4)

(ii)

(iii)In parallelogram PACT,

#### Question 8:

In the following figure, ABC is a right triangle right angled at A. BCED, ACFG and ABMN are squares on the sides BC, CA and AB respectively. Line segment AX ? DE meets BC at Y. Show that:

(i) ?MBC ? ?ABD

(ii)

(iii)

(iv) ?FCB ? ?ACE

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

**Note:** Result (vii) is the famous *Theorem of Pythagoras*. You shall learn a simpler proof of this theorem in class X.

#### Answer:

(i) We know that each angle of a square is 90°.

Hence, ?ABM = ?DBC = 90º

? ?ABM + ?ABC = ?DBC + ?ABC

? ?MBC = ?ABD

In ?MBC and ?ABD,

?MBC = ?ABD (Proved above)

MB = AB (Sides of square ABMN)

BC = BD (Sides of square BCED)

? ?MBC ? ?ABD (SAS congruence rule)

(ii) We have

?MBC ? ?ABD

? ar (?MBC) = ar (?ABD) … (1)

It is given that AX ? DE and BD ? DE (Adjacent sides of square

BDEC)

? BD || AX (Two lines perpendicular to same line are parallel to each other)

?ABD and parallelogram BYXD are on the same base BD and between the same parallels BD and AX.

Area (BYXD) = 2 area (?MBC) [Using equation (1)] … (2)

(iii) ?MBC and parallelogram ABMN are lying on the same base MB and between same parallels MB and NC.

2 ar (?MBC) = ar (ABMN)

ar (BYXD) = ar (ABMN) [Using equation (2)] … (3)

(iv) We know that each angle of a square is 90°.

? ?FCA = ?BCE = 90º

? ?FCA + ?ACB = ?BCE + ?ACB

? ?FCB = ?ACE

In ?FCB and ?ACE,

?FCB = ?ACE

FC = AC (Sides of square ACFG)

CB = CE (Sides of square BCED)

?FCB ? ?ACE (SAS congruence rule)

(v) It is given that AX ? DE and CE ? DE (Adjacent sides of square BDEC)

Hence, CE || AX (Two lines perpendicular to the same line are parallel to each other)

Consider ?ACE and parallelogram CYXE

?ACE and parallelogram CYXE are on the same base CE and between the same parallels CE and AX.

? ar (CYXE) = 2 ar (?ACE) … (4)

We had proved that

? ?FCB ? ?ACE

ar (?FCB) ? ar (?ACE) … (5)

On comparing equations (4) and (5), we obtain

ar (CYXE) = 2 ar (?FCB) … (6)

(vi) Consider ?FCB and parallelogram ACFG

?FCB and parallelogram ACFG are lying on the same base CF and between the same parallels CF and BG.

? ar (ACFG) = 2 ar (?FCB)

? ar (ACFG) = ar (CYXE) [Using equation (6)] … (7)

(vii) From the figure, it is evident that

ar (BCED) = ar (BYXD) + ar (CYXE)

? ar (BCED) = ar (ABMN) + ar (ACFG) [Using equations (3) and (7)]