Chapter 7: Ashoka, The Emperor who Gave up War
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
i. Sarnath, near Varanasi, where Buddha taught for the first time.
ii. The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
iii. Upanishadic thinkers believed that the atman and brahman were ultimately one.
iv. The Vinaya Pitaka is a Buddhist scripture.
v. Vardhamana Mahavira was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis.
vi. The Buddha belonged to a small gana known as the Sakya gana.
vii. The Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as Magadhi.
i. Gargi was the woman Upanishadic thinker who was famous for her learning. True
ii. Buddha taught people to be kind, and to respect the lives of others, including animals. True
iii. Buddha believed that karma do not affect our life. False
iv. The individual soul is referred to as brahman. False
v. The Buddha described cravings and desires as thirst or tanha. True
vi. Satyakama Jabala, who was named after his mother, the Brahmin woman Jabali. False
Q3. Who was Zoroaster?
Ans. Zoroaster was an Iranian prophet.
Q4. What is Avesta?
Ans. Teachings of Zoroaster are contained in a book called the Avesta.
Q5. What was Lord Buddha’s birth name?
Ans. His birth name was Siddhartha Gautama.
Q6. Who were Jainas?
Ans. Followers of Mahavira were known as Jainas.
Q7. Who prepared grammar for Sanskrit?
Ans. Panini prepared grammar for Sanskrit.
Q8. Where is Karle cave?
Ans. This is a cave in Karle, present-day Maharashtra.
Q9. Where does the word Jaina come from?
Ans. The word Jaina comes from the term Jina, Meaning conqueror.
Q10. Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Ans. Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
Q11. Why Buddha left the comforts of his home?
Ans. He left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge.
Q12. Who accepted Satyakama as a student?
Ans. He was accepted as a student by a brahmin teacher named Gautama.
Q13. Where Buddha died?
Ans. Gautama Buddha died in the city of Kusinara (present day Kushinagar).
Q14. Where did Siddhartha attain enlightenment?
Ans. Siddhartha attained enlightenment under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar.
Q15. How did Mahavira attain enlightenment?
Ans. For twelve years Mahavira led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
Q16. Name the famous thinker who developed the ideas of the Upanishads.
Ans. Many of the ideas of the Upanishads were later developed by the famous thinker Shankaracharya.
Q17. Who could join the Sangha?
Ans. Brahmins, kshatriyas, merchants, labourers, barbers, courtesans and slaves could join the sangha.
Q18. The teaching of Buddhism and Jainism were propagated in which language?
Ans. The teaching of Buddhism and Jainism were propagated in Prakrit language.
Q19 What are the four ashramas?
Ans. Four ashramas were recognised: brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha and samnyasa.
Q20. Explain ‘Sangha’.
Ans. The word “Sangha” literally means a community that joins and lives together.
Q21. When were the teachings of Mahavira written for the first time?
Ans. The teachings of Mahavira were written about 1500 years ago for the first time.
Q22. How tanha or constant craving could be removed?
Ans. Constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
Q23. Who was Gargi?
Ans. Gargi was the woman Upanishadic thinker who was famous for her learning, and participated in debates held in royal courts.
Q24. Explain the word ‘Karma’ as described by Buddha.
Ans. According to Buddha, the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Q25. Explain the term ‘Upanishad’.
Ans. Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain conversations between teachers and students.
Q26. How did Panini prepare grammar for Sanskrit?
Ans. He arranged the vowels and the consonants in a special order, and then used these to create formulae like those found in Algebra.
Q27. What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?
Ans. Some of the thinkers wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.
Q28. Name the book in which the rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written?
Ans. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Q29. Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the sangha? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. No, it would have not been easy for slaves to join the sangha because they had to take the permission of their masters.
Q30. Who believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Ans. Buddha believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Q31. What does tanha mean?
Ans. Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even more (or want other things). The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha.
Q32. Who are the ancestors of the present Parsis?
Ans. Some Zoroastrians migrated from Iran and settled down in the coastal towns of Gujarat and Maharashtra. They were the ancestors of today’s Parsis.
Q33. What does vihara mean?
Ans. Many supporters of the monks and nuns, and they themselves, felt the need for more permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as viharas.
Q34. What is atman?
Ans. Many thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul.
Q35. Why do you think Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?
Ans. Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha because she was going on a school trip to Varanasi (in Uttar Pradesh) and Sarnath near Varanasi is the place where Buddha taught for the first time.
Q36. What did Buddha do after he attained enlightenment?
Ans. After enlightenment, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One. He then went to Sarnath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He spent the rest of his life travelling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he passed away at Kusinara.
Q37. Write a note on spread of Jainism.
Ans. Jainism was supported mainly by traders. Farmers, who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules. Over hundreds of years, Jainism spread to different parts of north India, and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Q38. What were the basic rules of Jainism?
Ans. Followers of Mahavira, who were known as Jainas, had to lead very simple lives, begging for food. They had to be absolutely honest, and were especially asked not to steal. Also, they had to observe celibacy. And men had to give up everything, including their clothes.
Q39. What were the main teachings of Mahavira?
Ans. Main teachings of Mahavira
i. He taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.
ii. They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings.
Q40. What are the similarities between the teachings of Buddha and Mahavira?
i. Both Buddha and Mahavira taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand their message.
ii. Buddhism and Jainism were against to the vedic religion to large extent.
Q41. Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.
Ans. Ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people:
i. The Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.
ii. He also encouraged people to think for themselves rather than to simply accept what he said.
Q42. What were the reasons for the less popularity of Jainism?
Ans. Reasons for the less popularity of Jainism were:
i. Men had to give up everything, including their clothes.
ii. It was very difficult for most men and women to follow these strict rules.
iii. Jainism was supported mainly by traders. Farmers, who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules.
Q43. What type of people became Upanishadic thinkers?
Ans. Most Upanishadic thinkers were men, especially brahmins and rajas. There were some exceptions, such as Gargi, who was famous for her learning, and participated in debates held in royal courts. One famous exception was Satyakama Jabala, who was named after his mother, the slave woman Jabali. He was accepted as a student by a brahmin teacher named Gautama.
Q44. Write about Sangha as described in Vinaya Pitaka.
Ans. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka. All men could join the sangha. However, children had to take the permission of their parents and slaves that of their masters. Those who worked for the king had to take his permission and debtors that of creditors. Women had to take their husbands’ permission. Men and women who joined the sangha led simple lives.
Q45. Write in brief about the life of Vardhamana Mahavira.
Ans. About Vardhamana Mahavira
i. The most famous thinker of the Jainas was the Vardhamana Mahavira.
ii. He was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji sangha.
iii. At the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest.
iv. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
Q46. Write a short note on Gautama Buddha.
Ans. Gautama Buddha
i. Siddhartha, also known as Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born about 2500 years ago.
ii. The Buddha belonged to a small gana known as the Sakya gana, and was a kshatriya.
iii. When he was a young man, he left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge.
iv. He meditated for days on end under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he attained enlightenment.
Q47. Differentiate between a monastery and an ashrama.
Ans. Difference between a monastery and an ashrama
|a monastery||an ashrama|
|1. It is a permanent shelter for monks and nuns. These were also known as viharas.|
2. The earliest viharas were made of wood, and then of brick. Some were even in caves that were dug out in hills, especially in western India.
|1. The word ashrama does not mean a place where people live and meditate.|
2. It is used instead for a stage of life. Four ashramas were recognised: brahmacharya, grihastha,
vanaprastha and samnyasa.
Q48. Write about the monasteries of Jainas and Buddhists.
Ans. Monasteries of Jainas and Buddhists
i. Supporters of the monks and nuns built temporary shelters for them in gardens, or they lived in natural caves in hilly areas.
ii. As time went on, many supporters of the monks and nuns, and they themselves, felt the need for more permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as viharas.
iii. Very often, the land on which the vihara was built was donated by a rich merchant or a landowner, or the king.
Q49. Write a short note on the ‘System of Ashramas’.
Ans. Around the time when Jainism and Buddhism were becoming popular, brahmins developed the system of ashramas. Here, the word ashrama does not mean a place where people live and meditate.It is used instead for a stage of life. Four ashramas were recognised: brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha and samnyasa.
Brahmacharya – During this stage of life, Brahmin, kshatriya and vaishya men were expected to lead simple lives and study the Vedas during the early years of their life.
Grihastha – During this stage, they had to marry and live as householders.
Vanaprastha – During this stage, they had to live in the forest and meditate.
Samnyasa – Finally, they had to give up everything and become samnyasins.
The system of ashramas allowed men to spend some part of their lives in meditation. Generally, women were not allowed to study the Vedas, and they had to follow the ashramas chosen by their husbands.