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# Chapter 6 – Population

## Population

#### Question 1:

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in

 (a) The area of departure (c) Both the area of departure and arrival (b) The area of arrival (d) None of the above

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of

 (a) high birth rates (c) high death rates (b) high life expectancies (d) more married couples

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to

 (a) The total population of an area (b) The number of persons added each year (c) The rate at which the population increases (d) The number of females per thousand males

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who

 (a) Can read and write his/her name (b) Can read and write any language (c) Is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding (d) Knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in

 (a) The area of departure (c) Both the areas of departure and arrival (b) The area of arrival (d) None of the above

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of

 (a) high birth rates (c) high death rates (b) high life expectancies (d) more married couples

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to

 (a) The total population of an area (b) The number of persons added each year (c) The rate at which the population increases (d) The number of females per thousand males

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who

 (a) Can read and write his/her name (b) Can read and write any language (c) Is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding (d) Knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)

#### Question 2:

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

(i) Since 1981, birth rates have been declining gradually. As a result, there has been a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.

(ii) The major components of population growth are natural increase of population and immigration. Natural increase of a population is the difference between the birth rates and the death rates in that population. Immigration refers to the inflow of people into a region from other regions.

(iii) The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in that population.

Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

(iv) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It is a determinant factor of population change as it changes the demographics (size and composition) of both the areas of departure and arrival.

#### Question 3:

Distinguish between population growth and population change.

 Population Growth Population Change It refers to the increase in the number of inhabitants of a region during a specific period of time. It refers to the change in the distribution, composition or size of a population during a specific period of time. Natural increase of population and immigration are the major components causing population growth. Natural increase, immigration and emigration are the major components causing population change.

#### Question 4:

What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

The distribution of the population according to the different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure. Occupations are generally classified as primary (agriculture, mining, fishing, etc.), secondary (manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.) and tertiary (transport, communications, banking, etc.).

The proportion of people working in different activities reflects the economic development of a country. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities.

#### Question 5:

What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Health is an important component of population which affects the process of development. A healthy population is an asset to the country. A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual. He or she is able to realise his or her potential, and play an important role in social and national development.

#### Question 6:

What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework for:

(i) Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age

(ii) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births

(iii) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases

(iv) Promoting delayed marriage and child bearing

(v) Making family welfare a people-centred programme

(vi) Providing nutritional services and food supplements to adolescents

(vii) Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases, and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex

(viii) Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable

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