Page No 79:
Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(c) TATA Steel
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?
(d) Information Technology
(i) (b) Cement
(ii) (b) SAIL
(iii) (a) Aluminium
(iv) (b) Electronic
Page No 79:
Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(i) What is manufacturing?
(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?
(i) Manufacturing is the process in which goods are produced after processing the various raw materials. The raw materials themselves may be manufactured products.
(ii) Physical factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are – availability of raw materials, availability of capital and the proximity to the market.
(iii) Human factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are – availability of cheap labour, availability of services such as consultants and financial advice, and resources for maintaining labour.
(iv) Basic industries are those which supply their raw materials to industries which manufacture other goods. An example is the iron and steel industry which supplies steel to the automobile industry.
(v) The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are: limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Apart from these, coal, electric power and rail transportation are also needed.
Page No 79:
Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?
(i) Integrated steel plants are different from mini steel plants in many aspects. An integrated steel plant is large and handles everything in one complex—from integrating raw materials to steel making, rolling and shaping. On the other hand, a mini steel plant is smaller, has electric furnaces, uses steel scrap and sponge iron, and has re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. It produces mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
The problems faced by this industry are: (a) high production costs and limited availability of coking coal; (b) lower productivity of labour; (c) irregular supply of energy; and (d) poor infrastructure.
Recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity of this industry are liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment, with help from private entrepreneurs.