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Chapter 4: What Books and Burials Tell Us

Chapter 4: What Books and Burials Tell Us

 

 

Q1. Fill in the blanks.

i.        Great Bath has been discovered in Mohenjodaro.

ii.        People living in the countryside grew crops and reared animals.

iii.        The alloy of tin and copper is called bronze.

iv.        Usually in the Harappan cities, the part to the west was smaller but higher and was known as citadel.

v.        Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.

vi.        Sealings are the impression of seals on clay.

 

Q2. True/False

i.        Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. True

ii.        The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Ganga, in Gujarat. False

iii.        Great Bath was made water-tight with a layer of natural tar. True

iv.        Usually in the Harappan cities, the part to the east was larger but lower and is called the upper town. False

v.        The Harappans also made seals out of stone. True

vi.        All the raw materials that the Harappans used were available locally. False

 

 

Q3. How old are the Harappan cities?

Ans. Harappan cities were developed about 4700 years ago.

 

Q4. What were the objects in Harappan cities made of?

Ans. Objects in Harappan cities made of out of stone, shell and metal.

 

Q5. List some uses of ‘Faience’.

Ans. Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings, and tiny vessels.

 

Q6. Where fire altars have been discovered?

Ans. Fire altars have been discovered in Kalibangan and Lothal.

Q7. Which two metals form the alloy bronze?

Ans.  Tin and copper forms the alloy bronze.

 

Q8. When and where cotton cultivation has started?

Ans. Cotton cultivation started at Mehrgarh about 7000 years ago.

 

Q9. Make a list of what the Harappans ate.

Ans. Wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed, mustard and fruits.

 

Q10. Name the terracotta toys have been found during excavations.

Ans. Toy cart and Toy plough

Q11. How bricks were arranged to build walls in Harappan cities?

Ans. The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern and that made the walls strong.

 

Q12. Why plough was used?

Ans. The plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds.

 

Q13. Name the cities which had elaborate store houses.

Ans. Some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Lothal had elaborate store houses.

 

Q14. Who is a specialist?

Ans. A specialist is a person who is trained to do only one kind of work, for example, cutting stone, or polishing beads, or carving seals.

 

Q15. What were the seals used for?

Ans. Seals may have been used to stamp bags or packets containing goods that were sent from one place to another.

 

Q16. What do you understand by ‘Raw Material’?

Ans. Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders.

 

Q17. Discuss the term ‘Citadel’.

Ans. Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel.

 

Q18. Explain the term sealing.

Ans. After a bag was closed or tied, a layer of wet clay was applied on the knot, and the seal was pressed on it. The impression of the seal is known as a sealing.

 

Q19. What types of houses was found in the earlier cities?

Ans. Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard. Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water.

 

Q20. How Dholavira was different from Harappan cities?

Ans. Unlike some of the other Harappan cities, which were divided into two parts, Dholavira was divided into three parts, and each part was surrounded with massive stone walls, with entrances through gateways.

 

Q21. How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in Harappan civilization?

Ans. Actual pieces of cloth were found attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro. Archaeologists have also found spindle whorls, made of terracotta and faience. These were used to spin thread.

 

Q22. Discuss the farming methods of the Harappans.

Ans. Plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. As this region does not receive heavy rainfall, some form of irrigation may have been used. This means that water was stored and supplied to the fields when the plants were growing.

 

 

Q23. Write about crafts practiced by Harrappan.

Ans. Most of the things that have been found by archaeologists are made of stone, shell and metal, including copper, bronze, gold and silver. Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels. Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.

 

Q24. Discuss the farming methods of the Harappans.

Ans. Plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. As this region does not receive heavy rainfall, some form of irrigation may have been used. This means that water was stored and supplied to the fields when the plants were growing.

 

Q25. Why archaeological evidence is the only source to study the Harappan civilization?

Ans. Harappan script is the earliest form of writing known in the subcontinent. Scholars have tried to read these signs but we still do not know exactly what they mean. Thus, archaeological evidence is the only source to study the Harappan civilization.

 

Q26. Write about occupations that Harappan people used to engage in.

Ans. Occupations that Harappan people used to engage in were:

i.        The Harappans reared cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo. Water and pastures were available around settlements.

ii.        However, in the dry summer months large herds of animals were probably taken to greater distances in search of grass and water.

iii.        They also collected fruits like ber, caught fish and hunted wild animals like the antelope.

 

Q27. Write short note Dholavira.

Ans. Dholavira

i.        The city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch, where there was fresh water and fertile soil.

ii.        Dholavira was divided into three parts, and each part was surrounded with massive stone walls, with entrances through gateways.

iii.        There was also a large open area in the settlement, where public ceremonies could be held.

 

Q28. What were the three major categories of people in Harappan cities?

Ans. The different categories of people lived in Harappan cities were:

i.       There were people who planned the construction of special buildings in the city. These were probably the rulers.

ii.        There were scribes, people who knew how to write, who helped prepare the seals, and perhaps wrote on other materials that have not survived.

iii.        There were men and women, crafts persons, making all kinds of things— either in their own homes, or in special workshops.

 

Q29. What were the reasons for the end of Harappan civilization?

Ans. Following could be the reasons for the end of Harappan civilization:

i.        Some scholars suggest that the rivers dried up.

ii.        Others suggest that there was deforestation. This could have happened because fuel was required for baking bricks, and for smelting copper ores.

iii.        Besides, grazing by large herds of cattle, sheep and goat may have destroyed the green cover.

iv.        In some areas there were floods.

 

Q30. Write short note on Lothal.

Ans. Lothal

i.        The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Sabarmati, in Gujarat, close to the Gulf of Khambat.

ii.        It was situated near areas where raw materials such as semi-precious stones were easily available.

iii.        This was an important centre for making objects out of stone, shell and metal.

iv.        There was also a store house in the city. Many seals and sealings (the impression of seals on clay) were found in this storehouse.

 

Q31. Where the Harappans probably got copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones from?

Ans. Harappans used raw materials were available locally; many items such as copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones had to be brought from distant places. The Harappans probably got copper from present-day Rajasthan, and even from Oman in West Asia. Tin may have been brought from present-day Afghanistan and Iran. Gold could have come all the way from present-day Karnataka, and precious stones from present-day Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.

 

 

Q32. Explain why metals, writing, wheel and plough were considered important for the Harappans?

Ans. Metals, writing, the wheel and the plough were important for the Harappans in many ways:

Metals were used for making various tools, utensils, jewelry and seals.

Writing was useful for maintaining the records; related to trade and for various other purposes.

Wheel was used in carts to ferry people and goods. Wheel was also used as potter’s wheel.

Plough was used for tilling the land so that farming could be done.

 

Q33. When and how Harappa civilization was discovered?

Ans. Nearly a hundred and fifty years ago, when railway lines were being laid down for the first time in the Punjab, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa in present-day Pakistan. To them, it seemed like a mound that was a rich source of ready made, high quality bricks. So they carried off thousands of bricks from the walls of the old buildings of the city to build railway lines. Many buildings were completely destroyed. Then, about eighty years ago, archaeologists found the site, and realised that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent.

 

Q34. What was special about “Great Bath” of Mohenjodaro?

Ans. Great Bath

i.        In Mohenjodaro, a very special tank, which archaeologists call the Great Bath, was built in this area.

ii.        This was lined with bricks, coated with plaster, and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar.

iii.        There were steps leading down to it from two sides, while there were rooms on all sides.

iv.        Water was probably brought in from a well, and drained out after use.

v.        Perhaps important people took a dip in this tank on special occasions.

 

Q35. Write about the houses, drains and streets of Harappan cities.

Ans. Houses, drains and streets of Harappan cities

i.        Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard.

ii.        Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water.

iii.        Many of these cities had covered drains. Each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.

iv.        Drains in houses were connected to those on the streets and smaller drains led into bigger ones.

v.        As the drains were covered, inspection holes were provided at intervals to clean them.

 

Q36. The Harappans can be called great architects and engineers. Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your argument.

Ans. The Harappans can be called great architects and engineers because

i.        They built massive walls and gateways surrounding the city area to protect the city from flood and control illegal trade.

ii.        Most of these roads and streets were paved with fire brunt bricks. The main streets intersected at right angles, dividing the city into squares or rectangular blocks each of which was divided length wise and cross wise by lanes.

iii.        The drainage system was excellent. Drains were covered and had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it. Inspection holes were provided at intervals to clean them.

All three — houses, drains and streets — were probably planned and built at the same time.

 

Q37. How the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders?

Ans. Following are the difference:

i.        Harappan farmers and herders used wooden plough to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. Earlier farmers and herders used mortars and pestle for grinding grains.

ii.        Harappan farmers and herders used some form of irrigation. Water was stored and supplied to the fields when the plants were growing. Earlier farmers and herders did not practice irrigation.

iii.        Harappan farmers stored grains in well-built granaries. Earlier farmers stored grains in clay pots, basket etc.

iv.        Harappan farmers and herders lived in the countryside. There were no cities in earlier times.

 

Q38. What was special about Harappan cities?

Ans. Special feature about Harappan cities

i.        Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher and is called the citadel. Generally, the part to the east was larger but lower and is called the lower town.

ii.        Very often walls of baked brick were built around each part. The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern and that made the walls strong.

iii.        In some cities, special buildings were constructed on the citadel. For example, in Mohenjodaro, a very special tank called the Great Bath, was built in this area.

iv.        Other cities, such as Kalibangan and Lothal had fire altars, where sacrifices may have been performed.

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