Chapter 3 – The Delhi Sultans
Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi?
Ananga Pala of the Tomara dynasty first established his capital at Delhi.
What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?
Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its farthest extent?
In Muhammad Tughluq’s reign the Sultanate reached its farthest end.
From which country did Ibn Battuta travel to India?
Ibn Battuta travelled to India from Morocco.
According to the “circle of justice”, why was it important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?
According to the Circle of Justice, it was important for the military commanders to keep the interests of the peasants in mind because the salaries of the soldiers came from the revenue collected from the peasants and peasants could pay the revenue only when they were prosperous and happy.
What is meant by the “internal” and “external” frontiers of the Sultanate?
‘Internal’ frontiers of the sultanate consisted of the ‘hinterland’ of the garrison towns. The ‘external’ frontiers refer to the unconquered territories especially in the southern parts of the subcontinent.
What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans?
To ensure that the muqtis performed their duties their office was made non inheritable, and they kept getting shifted from one iqta to another.
What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?
Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq’s rule. Hence, a vast standing army was established under these two rulers to confront Mongol invasions. Alauddin constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers. He also started paying them salaries in cash rather than iqtas. He controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries. But instead of controlling prices, he used a token currency, made out of cheap metals. He did so in order- to mobilise resources to fight Mongol army. Alauddin also made his administrative system very effective. Hence, he successfully withstood the threat of Mongol invasions. But Muhammad’s administrative measures were a failure. He planned to attack the Mongol capital named Transoxiana. But soon he gave up it. His administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to Daulatabad was resented.
Do you think the authors of tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women?
No. The authors of tawarikh did not provide information about ordinary men and women. This was because they wrote in expectation of rewards by the sultan.
Raziyya Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate. Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?
Make a list of the current women leaders in our country and compare them and their careers with that of the women leaders of the past. Once you have reached the conclusion, discuss your answer with your teacher.
Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests? Does deforestation occur for the same reasons today?
Delhi Sultans were interested in cutting down forests because they wanted to encourage agriculture on the land.