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Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals

Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals

Question 1

1. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The main steps of nutrition in humans are __________, __________, __________, _________ and __________.

(c) The stomach releases hydrochloric acid and ___________ juices which act on food.

(d) The inner wall of the small intestine has many finger-like outgrowths

called _________.

(e) Amoeba digests its food in the ____________ .

Answer

(a) ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion

(b) Liver

(c) digestive

(d) villi

(e) food vacuole

Question 2

Mark “T” if the statement is true and “F” if it is false:

(a) Digestion of starch starts in the stomach. (T/F)

(b) The tongue helps in mixing food with saliva. (T/F)

(c) The gall bladder temporarily stores bile. (T/F)

(d) The ruminants bring back swallowed grass into their mouth and chew it for some time. (T/F)

Answer

(a) False

(b) True

(c) True

(d) True

Question 3

Tick () mark the correct answer in each of the following:

(a) Fat is completely digested in the __________.

(i) stomach (ii) mouth (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

(b) The largest gland in the human body is __________.

(i) stomach (ii) food pipe (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

Answer

(a) (iii) Small Intestine

(b) (iv) Large Intestine

Question 4

Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II:

Column IColumn II
Food ComponentsProduct (s) of Digestion
CarbohydratesFatty Acids and Glycerol
ProteinsSugar
FatsAmino Acids

Answer

Column IColumn II
Food ComponentsProduct (s) of Digestion
CarbohydratesSugar
ProteinsAmino Acids
FatsFatty Acids and Glycerol

Question 5

What are villi? What is their location and function?

Answer

The finger like projections in the inner walls of the small intestine is called villi. These are found in small intestine.

Function: The villi increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food

Question 6

Where is the bile produced? Which component of the food does it help to digest?

Answer

Bile is produced in liver. The bile juice stored in sac called the gallbladder. It helps in the digestion of fats.

Question 7

Name the type of carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not by humAnswer Give the reason also.

Answer

Cellulose is the carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants. Ruminants have large sac like structure between the small intestine and large intestine. The cellulose of the food is digested by the action of certain bacteria which are not present in humAnswer

Question 8

Why do we get instant energy from glucose?

Answer

Because it easily breaks down in the cell with the help of oxygen which provides instant energy to the organism. Glucose does not need digestion, it is directly absorbed into the blood.

Question 9

Which part of the digestive canal is involved in:

(i) Absorption of food ________ .

(ii) Chewing of food ________ .

(iii) Killing of bacteria ________ .

(iv) Complete digestion of food ________ .

(v) Formation of faeces ________ .

Answer

(i) Small intestine (ii) Mouth (iii) Stomach (iv) Small intestine (v) Large intestine

Question 10

Write one similarity and one difference between the nutrition in amoeba and human beings.

Answer

Similarity: The digestive juices in amoeba are secreted into food vacuole and in human beings the digestive juices are secreted in stomach and small intestine. Then the juices convert complex food into simpler soluble and absorbable substances.

Difference: Amoeba captures the food with help of pseudopodia and engulf it. In human beings food is taken by the mouth.

Question 11

Match the items of Column I with suitable items in Column II.

Column IColumn II
(a) Salivary Gland(i) Bile Juice Secretion
(b) Stomach(ii) Storage of undigested food
(c) Liver(iii) Saliva Secretion
(d) Rectum(iv) Acid release
(e) Small Intestine(v) Digestion is completed
(f) Large Intestine(vi) Absorption of water
 (vii) Release of Faeces

Answer

Column IColumn II
(a) Salivary Gland(iii) Saliva Secretion
(b) Stomach(iv) Acid release
(c) Liver(i) Bile Juice Secretion
(d) Rectum(ii) Storage of undigested food, faeces
(e) Small Intestine(v) Digestion is completed
(f) Large Intestine(vi) Absorption of water

Question 11

Label Fig. 2.11 of the digestive system.

Answer

Question 12

Can we survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/grass? Discuss.

Answer

We know that the animals, fungi, bacteria, non-green plants and human being do not have the ability to make their own food. They depend on autotrophs for their food directly or indirectly. The green plant (leafy vegetables/grass) trap solar energy and make their own food in the form of glucose. So, we can say that leafy vegetables and grass can provide sufficient energy to help us survive.

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