Chapter 2: From Hunting – Gathering to Growing Food
Q1. Fill in the blanks.
i. Grasslands developed around 12000 years ago.
ii. The earliest people painted on walls of the cave.
iii. Traces of ash have been found in the Kurnool caves.
iv. Perennial lakes and rivers have water throughout the year.
v. Palaeolithic period covers 99% of human history.
i. In Hunsgi, tools were made of limestone. True
ii. Grasslands developed in many areas around 1,000 years ago. False
iii. Tools in Hunsgi were made of limestones. True
iv. Early man who lived on the banks of the rivers went in search of water during the rainy season. False
Q3. Name the shelter of early men.
Q4. Write examples of habitation sites.
Ans. These include caves and rock shelters.
Q5. Name the earliest period of history given by archaeologists.
Ans. Palaeolithic period
Q6. What kind of colours was used in the cave paintings?
Ans. Colours were made from minerals like ochre or iron ore, and charcoal.
Q7. How was wood used in the past?
Ans. Wood was used as firewood. It was also used to make huts and tools.
Q8. Write any two grain bearing grasses.
Ans. Grain bearing grasses includes wheat, barley and rice etc.
Q9. List the foods hunter-gatherers ate.
Ans. Foods hunter-gatherers ate fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs.
Q10. What is Hunsgi famous for?
Ans. Hunsgi is famous because number of early Palaeolithic sites was found here.
Q11. What does the rock paintings of Madhya Pradesh and Southern Uttar Pradesh depicts?
Ans. Rock paintings of Madhya Pradesh and Southern Uttar Pradesh depict animals and hunting scenes.
Q12. What are factory sites?
Ans. Places where stone was found and where people made tools are known as factory sites.
Q13. What are microliths?
Ans. Stone tools found during this period are generally tiny, and are called microliths.
Q14. What tools would you use today for cutting fruit? What would they be made of?
Ans. Today for cutting fruit we would use knives, which are usually made of iron or steel.
Q15. How can we say that the people of Kurnool caves were familiar with fire?
Ans. Traces of ash have been found in Kurnool shows that people were familiar with fire.
Q16. Why people chose to live in natural caves?
Ans. People chose these natural caves because they provided shelter from the rain, heat and wind.
Q17. What did hunter-gatherers do to sustain themselves?
Ans. They hunted wild animals, caught fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs.
Q18. What qualities people need to have while hunting animals or catching fish?
Ans. To hunt animals or catch fish and birds, people need to be alert, quick, and have lots of presence of mind.
Q19. Write about the paintings found from Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh?
Ans. Paintings found from Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh show wild animals, drawn with great accuracy and skill.
Q20. Where are natural caves and rock shelter found?
Ans. Natural caves and rock shelters are found in the Vindhyas and the Deccan plateau. These rock shelters are close to the Narmada valley.
Q21. Where Ostrich egg shells were found in India in the Palaeolithic Age?
Ans. Ostriches were found in India during the Palaeolithic period. Large quantities of ostrich egg shells were found at Patne in Maharashtra.
Q22. Collecting plant produce needs lot precautions. Why?
Ans. To collect plant produce, you need to find out which plants or parts of plants are edible, that is, can be eaten, as many can be poisonous.
Q23. Find out the states where Bhimbetka, Hunsgi and Kurnool are located?
Ans. Bhimbetka – Madhya Pradesh
Hunsgi – Karnataka
Kurnool – Andhra Pradesh
Q24. Traces of ash have been found in Kurnool caves. What it suggests?
Ans. Traces of ash have been found here. This suggests that people were familiar with the use of fire. Fire could have been used for many things: as a source of light, to cook meat, and to scare away animals.
Q25. What led to the development of grasslands?
Ans. Around 12,000 years ago there were major changes in the climate of the world, with a shift to relatively warm conditions. In many areas, this led to the development of grasslands.
Q26. What do you understand by sites?
Ans. Sites are places where the remains of things (tools, pots, buildings etc.) were found. These may be found on the surface of the earth, buried under the earth, or sometimes even under water.
Q27. List three ways in which hunter-gatherers used fire. Would you use fire for any of these purposes today?
Ans. Fire could have been used for many things: as a source of light, to cook meat, and to scare away animals.
Today, we use fire for cooking food and to keep ourselves warm.
Q28. Many paintings show hunting scenes in which the animals are shown struck with arrows and spears. Why do you think early men made such paintings?
Ans. It is possible that these paintings were done on ceremonial occasions. Or perhaps they were made for special rituals, performed by hunters before they went in search of prey.
Q29. Write one point of difference between perennial and seasonal rivers?
Ans. Difference between perennial and seasonal rivers
|Perennial rivers||Seasonal rivers|
|Many rivers and lakes that have|
water throughout the year are called
|Many rivers have water during particular season i.e. rainy season are called Seasonal rivers.|
Q30. What were stone tools used for?
Ans. Some of these stone tools were used to cut meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots. Some may have been attached to handles of bone or wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting. Other tools were used to chop wood, which was used as firewood.
Q31. Write a note on habitation-cum-factory sites.
Ans. We usually find blocks of stone, tools that were made and perhaps discarded because they were not perfect, and chips of waste stone left behind at these sites. Sometimes, people lived here for longer spells of time. These sites are called habitation-cum-factory sites.
Q32. Is there any way of finding out whether women hunted, or men made stone tools, whether women painted or men gathered fruits and nuts?
Ans. At present, we do not really know. However, there are at least two possibilities. It is likely that both men and women may have done many of these things together. It is also possible that some tasks were done only by women and others only by men.
Q33. List the impact of the changes in climate that took place around 12,000 years ago.
Ans. Impacts of the changes in climate that took place around 12,000 years ago are:
i. Development of grasslands.
ii. Increase in the number of deer, antelope, goat, sheep and cattle, i.e. animals that survived on grass.
iii. People started thinking about herding and rearing these animals.
iv. Several grain bearing grasses, including wheat, barley and rice grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
v. People started thinking about growing plants on their own.
Q34. How stone tools were made?
Ans. Stone tools were probably made using two different techniques:
1. The first is called stone on stone: Here, the pebble from which the tool was to be made (also called the core) was held in one hand. Another stone, which was used as a hammer was held in the other hand. The second stone was used to strike off flakes from the first, till the required shape was obtained.
2. Pressure flaking: Here the core was placed on a firm surface. The hammer stone was used on a piece of bone or stone that was placed on the core, to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.
Q35. Write a short note on Palaeolithic period, Mesolithic period and Neolithic period.
Ans. Palaeolithic period – This comes from two Greek words, ‘palaeo’, meaning old, and ‘lithos’, meaning stone. The name points to the importance of finds of stone tools. The Palaeolithic period extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago.
Mesolithic period – The period when we find environmental changes, beginning about 12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago is called the Mesolithic (middle stone).
Neolithic period – The period from about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Neolithic.
Q36. Why did the hunter-gatherers travel from place to place? In what ways are these similar to/different from the reasons for which we travel today?
Ans. There are four reasons why hunter gatherers moved from place to place.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long time, they would have eaten up all the available plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place — either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves. That is why those who hunted them had to follow their movements.
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So, people may have moved from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial (with water throughout the year) others are seasonal. People living on their banks would have had to go in search of water during the dry seasons (winter and summer). Besides, people may have travelled to meet their friends and relatives. They travelled on foot.
However, now days we travel for different purposes like education, work, business, entertainment.