RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
Page No 12:
Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(i) (d) Non-renewable
(ii) (a) Replenishable
(iii) (c) Over irrigation
(iv) (d) Uttarakhand
(v) (b) Gujarat
Page No 13:
Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
(i) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Black soil is ideal for growing cotton.
(ii) Alluvial soil
Alluvial soils are very fertile. They are ideal for growing sugarcane, wheat and paddy. As it has more kankar nodules, old alluvial is less fertile than new alluvial.
(iii) In the hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by ploughing across contour lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and using strips of grass to check erosion by wind and water.
(iv) Biotic resources are composed of living things, and are derived from the biosphere, e.g., human beings, fisheries and livestock.
Abiotic resources are composed of non-living things, e.g., metals and rocks.
Page No 13:
Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
(i) Land resources in India are primarily divided into agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, and waste land. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land used for other non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads and industry. According to the recent data, about 54% of the total land area is cultivable or fallow, 22.5% is covered by forests, and 3.45% is used for grazing. The rest is waste land, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.
The improper use of forest land has degraded the available land area, and has made conservation of forests difficult. Human activities such as deforestation, mining and quarrying have contributed to the slow growth rate of forests. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.
(ii) Technical and economic development have led to more consumption of resources on account of various factors. In colonial times, imperial powers would use their technological and economic superiority to establish control over other countries and thereby gain access to the latter’s resources. Now, one country’s resources became accessible to the citizens of its colonial ruler too, leading to increased consumption. Also, on account of technical and economic progress, populations are increasing due to low mortality at all ages. With the development of medicine and health care, fewer people die due to accidents, diseases, in childbirth etc. This too has contributed to higher consumption of resources.